Metformin dosing guidelines

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    Metformin dosing guidelines


    Carefully follow the special meal plan your doctor gave you. This is a very important part of controlling your condition, and is necessary if the medicine is to work properly. Also, exercise regularly and test for sugar in your blood or urine as directed. Metformin should be taken with meals to help reduce stomach or bowel side effects that may occur during the first few weeks of treatment. Swallow the tablet or extended-release tablet whole with a full glass of water. While taking the extended-release tablet, part of the tablet may pass into your stool after your body has absorbed the medicine. Measure the oral liquid with a marked measuring spoon, oral syringe, or medicine cup. The average household teaspoon may not hold the right amount of liquid. Use only the brand of this medicine that your doctor prescribed. You may notice improvement in your blood glucose control in 1 to 2 weeks, but the full effect of blood glucose control may take up to 2 to 3 months. Elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function; contraindicated in patients with renal impairment, carefully monitor renal function in the elderly and use with caution as age increases Not for use in patients 80 years unless normal renal function established Initial and maintenance dosing of metformin should be conservative in patients with advanced age due to the potential for decreased renal function in this population Controlled clinical studies of metformin did not include sufficient numbers of elderly patients to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients Asthenia Diarrhea Flatulence Weakness Myalgia Upper respiratory tract infection Hypoglycemia GI complaints Lactic acidosis (rare) Low serum vitamin B-12 Nausea/vomiting Chest discomfort Chills Dizziness Abdominal distention Constipation Heartburn Dyspepsia 5 mmol/L), decreased blood p H, electrolyte disturbances with an increased anion gap, and an increased lactate/pyruvate ratio; when metformin is implicated as the cause of lactic acidosis, metformin plasma concentrations 5 mcg/m L are generally found Risk factors for metformin-associated lactic acidosis include renal impairment, concomitant use of certain drugs (eg, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as topiramate), age 65 years old or greater, having a radiological study with contrast, surgery and other procedures, hypoxic states (e.g., acute congestive heart failure), excessive alcohol intake, and hepatic impairment; if metformin-associated lactic acidosis is suspected, immediately discontinue Patients with CHF requiring pharmacologic management, in particular those with unstable or acute CHF who are at risk for hypoperfusion and hypoxemia, are at an increased risk for lactic acidosis; the risk for lactic acidosis increases with the degree of renal dysfunction and the patient’s age Do not start in patients aged 80 years or older unless Cr Cl demonstrates that renal function is not reduced, because these patients are more susceptible to developing lactic acidosis; metformin should be promptly withheld in the presence of any condition associated with hypoxemia, dehydration, or sepsis Should generally be avoided in patients with clinical or laboratory evidence of hepatic disease; patients should be cautioned against excessive alcohol intake, either acute or chronic, during metformin therapy because alcohol potentiates the effects of metformin on lactate metabolism Discontinue metformin at the time of or before an iodinated contrast imaging procedure in patients with an e GFR between 30-60 m L/minute/1.73 m²; in patients with a history of liver disease, alcoholism, or heart failure; or in patients who will be administered intra-arterial iodinate contrast The onset of lactic acidosis often is subtle and accompanied by nonspecific symptoms (eg, malaise, myalgias, respiratory distress, increasing somnolence, nonspecific abdominal distress); with marked acidosis, hypothermia, hypotension, and resistant bradyarrhythmias may occur; patients should be instructed regarding recognition of these symptoms and told to notify their physician immediately if the symptoms occur; metformin should be withdrawn until the situation is clarified; serum electrolytes, ketones, blood glucose, and, if indicated, blood p H, lactate levels, and even blood metformin levels may be useful Once a patient is stabilized on any dose level of metformin, GI symptoms, which are common during initiation of therapy, are unlikely to be drug related; later occurrences of GI symptoms could be due to lactic acidosis or other serious disease Lactic acidosis should be suspected in any diabetic patient with metabolic acidosis who is lacking evidence of ketoacidosis (ketonuria and ketonemia); lactic acidosis is a medical emergency that must be treated in a hospital setting; in a patient with lactic acidosis who is taking metformin, the drug should be discontinued immediately and general supportive care measures promptly instituted; metformin is highly dialyzable (clearance up to 170 m L/min under good hemodynamic conditions); prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct the acidosis and to remove the accumulated metformin; such management often results in prompt reversal of symptoms and recovery Increased risk of severe hypoglycemia especially in elderly, debilitated or malnourished, adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, dehydration, heavy alcohol use, hypoxic states, hepatic/renal impairment, stress due to infection, fever, trauma, or surgery Concomitant administration of insulin and insulin secretagogues (e.g., sulfonylurea) may increase risk of hypoglycemia; therefore, a lower dose of insulin or insulin secretagogue may be required to minimize risk of hypoglycemia when used in combination with metformin Withholding of food and fluids during surgical or other procedures may increase risk for volume depletion, hypotension, and renal impairment; therapy should be temporarily discontinued while patients have restricted food and fluid intake Rare lactic acidosis may occur due to metformin accumulation; fatal in approximately 50% of cases; risk increases with age, degree of renal dysfunction, and with unstable or acute CHF; if metformin-associated lactic acidosis suspected, general supportive measures should be instituted promptly in a hospital setting, along with immediate discontinuation of therapy; in patients with a diagnosis or strong suspicion of lactic acidosis, prompt hemodialysis is recommended to correct acidosis and remove accumulated metformin (metformin hydrochloride is dialyzable, with a clearance of up to170 m L/minute under good hemodynamic conditions); hemodialysis has often resulted in reversal of symptoms and recovery Possible increased risk of CV mortality May cause ovulation in anovulatory and premenopausal PCOS patients May be necessary to discontinue therapy with metformin and administer insulin if patient is exposed to stress (fever, trauma, infection), or experiences diabetic ketoacidosis Several of the postmarketing cases of metformin-associated lactic acidosis occurred in setting of acute congestive heart failure (particularly when accompanied by hypoperfusion and hypoxemia); cardiovascular collapse (shock) acute myocardial infarction, sepsis, and other conditions associated with hypoxemia have been associated with lactic acidosis and may also cause prerenal azotemia; discontinue therapy when such events occur May impair vitamin B12 or calcium intake/absorption; monitor B12 serum concentrations periodically with long-term therapy Not indicated for use in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus that are insulin dependent due to lack of efficacy Withhold in patients with dehydration and/or prerenal azotemia Conclusive evidence of macrovascular risk reduction with metformin not established Limited data with in pregnant women are not sufficient to determine drug-associated risk for major birth defects or miscarriage; published studies with metformin use during pregnancy have not reported a clear association with metformin and major birth defect or miscarriage risk; poorly-controlled diabetes mellitus in pregnancy increases maternal risk for diabetic ketoacidosis, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions, preterm delivery, stillbirth and delivery complications; poorly controlled diabetes mellitus increases the fetal risk for major birth defects, stillbirth, and macrosomia related morbidity Limited published studies report that metformin is present in human milk; however, there is insufficient information to determine effects of metformin on breastfed infant and no available information on effects of metformin on milk production; therefore, developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with mother’s clinical need for therapy and any potential adverse effects on breastfed child from therapy or from the underlying maternal condition The above information is provided for general informational and educational purposes only. Individual plans may vary and formulary information changes. Contact the applicable plan provider for the most current information.

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    Metformin should be taken with meals to help reduce stomach or bowel side effects. Metformin with a sulfonylurea Your doctor will determine the dose of each. In the absence of contraindications, metformin is considered the first choice. Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus A Clinical Practice Guideline Update. results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response trial. Patients with an eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 require no dose adjustments and are able to safely use metformin with annual monitoring. Patients.

    In Taiwan, the prevalence of hyperlipidemia increased due to lifestyle and dietary habit changes. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) are all significant predicting factors of coronary artery disease in Taiwan. We recognized that lipid control is especially important in patients with existed atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD), including coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Because the risk of ASCVD is high in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), lipid control is also necessary in these patients. Lifestyle modification is the first step to control lipid. Weight reduction, regular physical exercise and limitation of alcohol intake all reduce triglyceride (TG) levels. Lipid-lowering drugs include HMG-Co A reductase inhibitors (statins), cholesterol absorption inhibitors (ezetimibe), proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors, nicotinic acids (niacin), fibric acids derivatives (fibrates), and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Combination therapy with statin and other lipid-lowering agents may be considered in some clinical settings. The FDA has issued new guidance for the use of the first-line diabetes drug metformin in patients with renal impairment. Metformin was approved by the FDA in 1994 for the management of type 2 diabetes. Since its approval, its labeling has warned of a contraindication in elevated serum creatinine ( Other risk factors for lactic acidosis include contrast dye exposure within 48 hours, chronic or excessive alcohol intake, dehydration, sepsis, acute congestive heart failure, and age. This absolute contraindication was based on clinical trials of an older biguanide called phenformin, which showed a greater risk of lactic acidosis associated with significant mortality and was subsequently pulled off the market in 1977. Although phenformin is no longer available in the United States, it’s still available in European and South American markets. Notably, the incidence of lactic acidosis associated with metformin is as low as 0.03 cases per 1000 patient-years. The FDA reviewed several studies to determine whether patients with mild to moderate renal impairment could safely continue on metformin to manage their type 2 diabetes.

    Metformin dosing guidelines

    Glucophage/Glucophage XR metformin hydrochloride dose., Metformin in the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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  3. Metformin 500 mg White coloured, film coated, round, biconvex tablets. include renal impairment, old age and doses of metformin above 2 g per day see.

    • Metformin - Medsafe.
    • FDA Issues Guidance for Metformin Use in Renal Impairment.
    • Adjusted-Dose Metformin Appears Safe in Patients With Type 2..

    Detailed Metformin dosage information for adults and children. recommendations are provided in the full prescribing guidelines to reduce the. Indications, dose, contra-indications, side-effects, interactions, cautions, warnings and other safety information for METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE. Metformin is a commonly recommended initial medication for patients with type 2 diabetes. Available dosage of pills include 500 mg, 850 mg, and 1000 mg.

     
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